Recent data have shown that interindividual variability in the bioavailability of vitamins A (β-carotene), D, and E, and carotenoids (lutein and lycopene), as well as that of phytosterols, is modulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
The identified SNPs are in or near genes involved in intestinal uptake or efflux of these compounds, as well as in genes involved in their metabolism and transport. The phenotypic effect of each SNP is usually low, but combinations of SNPs can explain a significant part of the variability. Nevertheless, results from these studies should be considered preliminary since they have not been validated in other cohorts.
Guidelines for future studies are provided to ensure that sound associations are elucidated that can be used to build consolidated genetic scores that may allow recommended dietary allowances to be tailored to individuals or groups by taking into account the multiloci genotypic signature of people of different ethnic origin or even of individuals.
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