Sordillo JE, Rifas-Shiman SL, Switkowski K, Coull B, Gibson H, Rice M, Platts-Mills TAE, Kloog I, Litonjua AA, Gold DR, Oken E (2019) J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 Aug; pii: S0091-6749(19)31048-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.07.044. [Epub ahead of print]
Fetal oxidative balance (achieved when protective prenatal factors counteract sources of oxidative stress) might be critical for preventing asthma and allergic disease.
We examined prenatal intakes of hypothesized protective nutrients (including antioxidants) in conjunction with potential sources of oxidative stress in models of adolescent asthma and allergic disease.
We used data from 996 mother-child pairs in Project Viva. Exposures of interest were maternal prepregnancy body mass index and prenatal nutrients (energy-adjusted intakes of vitamins D, C, and E; β-carotene; folate; choline; and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]), air pollutant exposures (residence-specific third-trimester black carbon or particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm [PM2.5]), acetaminophen, and smoking. Outcomes were offspring's current asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergen sensitization at a median age of 12.9 years. We performed logistic regression. Continuous exposures were log-transformed and modeled as z scores.
We observed protective associations for vitamin D (odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.53-0.89] for allergic rhinitis), the sum of the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.66-0.99] for current asthma), and the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64-0.95] for allergen sensitization and OR, 0.80 [95% CI 0.65-0.99] for current asthma). Black carbon and PM2.5 were associated with an approximately 30% increased risk for allergen sensitization. No multiplicative interactions were observed for protective nutrient intakes with sources of oxidative stress.
We identified potential protective prenatal nutrients (vitamin D and n-3 PUFAs), as well as adverse prenatal pro-oxidant exposures that might alter the risk of asthma and allergic disease into adolescence.