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Prenatal oxidative balance and risk of asthma and allergic disease in adolescence

Sordillo JE, Rifas-Shiman SL, Switkowski K, Coull B, Gibson H, Rice M, Platts-Mills TAE, Kloog I, Litonjua AA, Gold DR, Oken E (2019) J Allergy Clin Immunol.  2019 Aug;  pii: S0091-6749(19)31048-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.07.044. [Epub ahead of print] 

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Abstract:

BACKGROUND:

Fetal oxidative balance (achieved when protective prenatal factors counteract sources of oxidative stress) might be critical for preventing asthma and allergic disease.

OBJECTIVE:

We examined prenatal intakes of hypothesized protective nutrients (including antioxidants) in conjunction with potential sources of oxidative stress in models of adolescent asthma and allergic disease.

METHODS:

We used data from 996 mother-child pairs in Project Viva. Exposures of interest were maternal prepregnancy body mass index and prenatal nutrients (energy-adjusted intakes of vitamins D, C, and E; β-carotene; folate; choline; and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]), air pollutant exposures (residence-specific third-trimester black carbon or particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm [PM2.5]), acetaminophen, and smoking. Outcomes were offspring's current asthmaallergic rhinitis, and allergen sensitization at a median age of 12.9 years. We performed logistic regression. Continuous exposures were log-transformed and modeled as z scores.

RESULTS:

We observed protective associations for vitamin D (odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.53-0.89] for allergic rhinitis), the sum of the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.66-0.99] for current asthma), and the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64-0.95] for allergen sensitization and OR, 0.80 [95% CI 0.65-0.99] for current asthma). Black carbon and PM2.5 were associated with an approximately 30% increased risk for allergen sensitization. No multiplicative interactions were observed for protective nutrient intakes with sources of oxidative stress.

CONCLUSIONS:

We identified potential protective prenatal nutrients (vitamin D and n-3 PUFAs), as well as adverse prenatal pro-oxidant exposures that might alter the risk of asthma and allergic disease into adolescence.

FAB RESEARCH COMMENT:

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