Food and Behaviour Research

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Professor Keith Woodford

Keith Woodford

Professor of Farm Management and Agribusiness at Lincoln University, New Zealand

Web URL:

View Keith's staff profile page at Lincoln University here

Research Interests:

Keith Woodford is Professor of Farm Management and Agribusiness at Lincoln University in New Zealand.  Keith is author of the groundbreaking book ‘Devil In the Milk’  that examines the health issues and industry politics surrounding the A2 milk story.  A2 milk is milk that is free of A1 beta-casein, a ‘rogue’ milk protein produced by many cows in western countries suspected of causing most problems in dairy-intolerant people.  Milk that contains A1 beta-casein is commonly known as A1 milk, whereas milk that does not is called A2. Originally all milk was A2 until a mutation affecting some European cattle occurred some thousands of years ago.  Keith has brought together evidence, published in more than 100 scientific papers, of the link between the consumption of A1 milk and the incidence of heart disease and Type 1 diabetes, autism and schizophrenia; he explains the science that underpins the A1/A2 hypothesis; and examines the research undertaken with animals and humans. The evidence is compelling: we should be switching to A2 milk.

Recent Publications:

The book 'Devil In the Milk' is available to purchase from FAB Research here.

See post by Keith Woodford on his blog page here:

Human health implications of A1 versus A2 beta-casein: theory and current evidence

Dietary A1 β-casein affects gastrointestinal transit time, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity, and inflammatory status relative to A2 β-casein in Wistar rats

A1 beta-casein, type 1 diabetes and links to other modern illnesses. (PDF 176 KB) (April 2008).

Dairy industry strategy and structure as New Zealand takes on the world. (PDF 48 KB)
(Published in Primary Industry Management, March 2008)

Submission to NZFSA Risk Management Review regarding A1 and A2 milk. (PDF 59K B) (February 2008).

The role of the NZFSA in investigating health issues concerning A1 and A2 milk. (PDF 74 KB) (A Working Paper, October 2007).

A2 milk, farmer decisions and risk management. (PDF 54 KB)
(Published in Proceedings of the 16th International Farm Management Association, University College, Cork, 2: 641-648, 2007.

Bio-fuels (PDF 19 KB) (Published in the Sunday Star-Times, Business Section D4, 5 August 2007) as 'Biofuel revolution will drive up food prices'. 

Meat industry turmoil (PDF 35 KB) (Published in the Sunday Star-Times, Business Section D4, 8 July 2007) as 'Uneasy times ripe for alliance'.

Meat industry woes: can we do better? (PDF 35 KB) (Published in Country-Wide South, 12 March 2007, p4) as 'Supply clubs one option for meat'.

Do runoffs pay? (PDF 20 KB) (Published in NZ Dairy Exporter, July 2006, p116) as 'Runoffs: for profit, control - and fun'.

Calving: getting results without inducing (PDF 31KB) (Published in NZ Dairy Exporter, July 2006, p84-85.

The intensification of pastoral agriculture: Some trends and implications  (PDF 28 KB) (Published in Primary Industry Management, Vol 9, No 2, June 2006, pp3-4).

Agriculture's greenhouse emissions. How should they be calculated?  (PDF 28 KB ) (Published in Primary Industry Management, Vol 9, No 1 March 2006, pp7-8).

Cooperatives as seen from overseas  (PDF 17 KB) (Written for ‘Co-operative News’, Volume 8, October 2005, New Zealand Co-operatives Association Inc. Reprinted by Fonterra in the December 2005 edition of ‘Farmlink’).

Profile: Keith Woodford  (PDF 28 KB) (Published in Primary Industry Management, Vol 8, No 4, December 2005, pp39-40).

Fonterra scores coup with Dexcel  (PDF 18 KB) (Published in Primary Industry Management, Vol 8, No3, September 2005, p31).

Top performing farmers are information rich  (PDF 40 KB) (Published in the Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Farm Management Association Congress, Campinas, Brazil, August 2005, Vol 1, pp.365-368).

Sources of competitive advantage in the Uruguayan and New Zealand beef industries  (PDF 103 KB) (Published in the Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Farm Management Association Congress, Campinas, Brazil, August 2005, Vol 2, pp.136-144).

Searching for productivity gains through 'Once-a-day' milking on New Zealand's pastoral dairy farms  (PDF 50 KB) (Published in the Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Farm Management Association Congress, Campinas, Brazil, August 2005, Vol 2, pp.145-150).

Where to from here for Fonterra?  (PDF 23 KB) (Published in the Christchurch Press, 15 April 2005).

The A2 Milk Debate: Searching for the Evidence  (PDF 77 KB) (Pre-publication version, forthcoming in December 2004 Issue of 'Primary Industry Management').

A2 Milk and Farmer Decisions  (PDF 27 KB) (Pre-publication version, forthcoming in September 2004 Issue of 'Primary Industry Management').

Stoking the Fires of Innovation (PDF 150 KB) (Address to Marlborough Federated Farmers, 26 May 2004).

Rejoinder: Fair Value Share Process Needs To Be More Open  (PDF 15 KB) (Published in NZ Farmers Weekly, May 5 2004, p11).

Fair Value Share Lacks Transparency  (PDF 32 KB) (Published in NZ Farmers Weekly, April 28 2004, p8).

A2 Milk (PDF 21 KB) (Published as guest editorial in Bioscience News 24 March 2004).

Agribusiness Co-operatives Need Farmer Directors  (PDF 17 KB) (Published in NZ Farmers Weekly, March 17 2004, p7 as 'Farmer Directors are Essential'') 

Agricultural Education in NZ Universities  (PDF 31 KB) (Published in Primary Industry Management, Vol 4, No 4 December 2003, pp14-16)

High Country Tenure  (PDF 19 KB) (Published in The Christchurch Press 26th November 2003) 

The Issues and Challenges of Industry-Good Activities in the NZ Meat Industry  (PDF 55 KB) (An invited address for the AGM of Meat NZ, Dunedin 26th March 2003)

New Generation Co-operatives and Related Business Structures  (PDF 48 KB) (prepared for the Co-operative Directors' Seminar, Wellington, September 2003) 

Farming to Resources or Markets: The Search for a Farm Business Strategy  (PDF 39 KB) (A presentation to the 2003 NZIPM Brainstorn 12th September 2003) 

Searching for Productivity and Competitive Advantage on NZ Dairy Farms  (PDF 44 KB) (Published in the Proceedings of the 14th International Farm Management Congress, Perth, August 2003, pp771-776