Food and Behaviour Research

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Toward optimizing vision and cognition in term infants by dietary docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation: a review of randomized controlled trials.

Hoffman DR, Boettcher JA, Diersen-Schade DA. (2009) Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.  81(2-3) 151-8. Epub 2009 Jun 7. 

Web URL: View this and related abstracts via PubMed here


The question of whether a dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) imparts advantages to visual or cognitive development in term infants has been debated for many years.

DHA and ARA are present in human milk, and nursing infants consume these fatty acids needed for rapid synthesis of cell membranes, particularly neural cells. The reported mean DHA and ARA levels of human milk worldwide are 0.32% and 0.47% of total fatty acids, respectively.

Prior to 2002 in the US, formula-fed infants did not receive these fatty acids and relied solely on endogenous conversion of the dietary essential omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids, to DHA and ARA, respectively. Formula-fed infants were found to have significantly less accretion of DHA in brain cortex after death than breastfed infants.

Numerous studies have found positive correlations between blood DHA levels and improvements in cognitive or visual function outcomes of breastfed and formula-fed infants. Results of randomized controlled clinical trials of term formula-fed infants evaluating functional benefits of dietary DHA and ARA have been mixed, likely due to study design heterogeneity. A comparison of visual and cognitive outcomes in these trials suggests that dietary DHA level is particularly relevant.

Trials with formulas providing close to the worldwide human milk mean of 0.32% DHA were more likely to yield functional benefits attributable to DHA. We agree with several expert groups in recommending that infants receive at least 0.3% DHA, with at least 0.3% ARA, in infant feedings; in addition, some clinical evidence suggests that an ARA:DHA ratio greater than 1:1 is associated with improved cognitive outcomes.