All over the world, pregnant women are bombarded with opinions about what to eat and what to avoid. All too often, sound advice gets lost in a stew of badly-reported science and old wives' tales.
25 March 2015 - BBC News
If pregnant women are confused, the media must take a good share of the blame, says Linda Geddes, mother of two and author of Bumpology, a book that deploys cutting-edge science to slice through the tangle of anecdote, myth, and mumbo-jumbo that surrounds pregnancy.
"Journalists will seize on any study about pregnancy because they know that people are interested," she says.
"Often, inconclusive or early stage studies get picked up, and by the time a scientific consensus has emerged - sometimes years later - the story has become too old and boring to report. So you end with a lot of misleading information out there. The result is that when a woman googles a question, she's faced with a mass of scare stories."
The science is not just badly reported. It usually gets stirred into a stew of superstition and folklore that varies from country to country.
Plenty of common sense gets handed down too, of course. Eating green leafy vegetables is recommended by traditional cultures all over the world. But sound advice often gets packaged together with ideas that are closer to magic than to medicine.
It's in the least developed communities, though, that ignorance and old wives' tales still do real damage. In parts of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, food taboos can prevent women from eating a balanced diet and deprive them of essential nutrients.
Advice from the UK National Health Service: