We investigated the effects of 4-17 month supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids and antioxidants (Smartfish drink; Smartfish AS, Oslo, Norway) in 12patients with minorcognitiveimpairment (MCI) [minimental state examination (MMSE) ≥19], 2 patient with pre-MCI s (normal MMSE), and 7 patientswith Alzheimer disease (AD) (MMSE <19).
We measured the phagocytosis of amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ) by flow cytometry and microscopy, the transcription of inflammatory genes by RT-PCR, the production of resolvinD1 (RvD1) by enzyme immunoassay, and the cognitive status by MMSE.
In patients with MCI and pre-MCI, phagocytosis of Aβ by monocytes increased from 530 to 1306 mean fluorescence intensity units (P = 0.016). The increase in patients with AD was not significant (N.S.).
The lipidic mediator RvD1, which stimulates Aβ phagocytosis in vitro, increased in macrophages in 80% ofpatients with MCI and pre-MCI (mean increase 9.95 pg/ml) (N.S.).
Transcription of inflammatory genes' mRNAs was increased in a subgroup ofpatients with low transcription at baseline, whereas it was not significantly changed in patients with high transcription at baseline.
The mean MMSE score of patients with MCI and pre-MCI was 25.9 at baseline and 25.7 after 4-17 months (N.S.).
Our study is the first to show significant immune and biochemical effects of ω-3 fatty acids with antioxidants in patients with MCI.
Cognitive benefits of ω-3 supplementation in patients with MCI should be tested in a clinical trial.
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